Electrochemical proton gradient across the cell membrane of Halobacterium halobium: effect of N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, relation to intracellular adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and phosphate concentration, and influence of the potassium gradient
Objective Side effects of radiation therapy may include skin damage. The surface dose is of great interest and contains the buildup effect. In particular, the proton therapy community requires furt...
Hakozaki, A., Niki, Y., Enomoto, H., Toyama, Y., & Suda, Y. (2015). Clinical significance of T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI to monitor graft maturation over one year after anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A comparative study with proton density-weighted MRI.
The accumulation of protons outside the membrane gives rise to a proton gradient. This high concentration of protons initiates the process of chemiosmosis, and activates the ATP synthase complex. Chemiosmosis refers to the generation of an electrical as well as a pH potential across a membrane due to large difference in proton concentrations.
This comprises a gradient of electrical charge and a concentration gradient, which depends on the distribution of the ion across the membrane. Such a gradient can be generated by the operation of an ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM, in the form of a proton motive force (pmf).
ABSTRACT. The regulation of the proton gradient present in a mitochondrion is important in preventing mitochondrial dysfunction, which affects the energy cycle of the cell. Current studies on neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, have shown that exposing the mitochondrial membrane to adaptive cellular stress by using a mitochondrial uncoupler, can improve neural plasticity. 2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) is a synthetic mitochondrial uncoupler and proton ionophore.
The slice selection gradient applied for the 180° pulse requires no rephasing lobe. However, two identical gradient lobes are applied on either side of this gradient to eliminate the transverse magnetization created by the 180° rephasing pulse on the edge of the slice (where the protons will in fact be submitted to a flip angle of less than 180° due to the imperfect slice profile).
Part two of our "ATP-first" approach to cellular respiration. This video explores the electron transport chain's role in establishing the proton gradient whi...